Standard Treatment Prevails, relative to Sustained Inflations for Particularly Premature Infants

Premature infants must begin steady breathing patterns at delivery. For really premature infants need in artificial respiration at birth, a ventilation strategy consisting of two constant inflations, relative to a standard recurrent positive pressure ventilation, did not succeed in decreasing the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or demise at 36 weeks postmenstrual age.

Researchers matched the two methods in a multicenter experiment conducted by Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia.

Studies likening the two methods have been limited until now. Collected data from smaller scaled randomized trials were contradictory: one displayed how continual inflations decreased the requirement for mechanical ventilation. But another one found no advantage in mortality.

“Preterm infants with weak respiratory muscles and liquid-filled lungs struggle to aerate their lungs, leaving them at risk of complications, including Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD), which is associated with a lot of long-term problems,” statedHareshKirpalani, MD, MSc, neonatologist at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia as well as the study’s lead author. “We hypothesized that establishing adequate lung volume quickly in these infants could reduce the risk of BPD. This was possible using sustained inflations at delivery, as these appeared beneficial in animal models, and in smaller prior human studies. However, in our larger randomized trial, in the smallest and most vulnerable preterm infants, this proved not to be the case.”

The randomized experiment took place between August 2014 and September 2017, in 18 neonatal ICUs of 9nations. Premature infants from 23 to 26 weeks needing artificial respiration were registered. The chief conclusion was the rate of BPD/demise at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. There were also 27 previously specified secondary efficiency results and 7 safety results, including demise at fewer than 48 hours.

From 460 random infants, 92.6%finished the trial. From the sustained inflation group, 63.7% passed away or survived with BPD relative to 59.2%of the standard resuscitation group. Demise in fewer than 48 hours of age arose in 7.4% infants in the sustained inflation group, and 1.4% in the standard resuscitation group.

“Because we had been worried about complications, the external data safety monitoring board was looking for early adverse events. Unfortunately, this promising therapy seemed to have higher mortality, especially in the smallest, most vulnerable infants,” Kirpalani concluded. “Additional research is needed to address how best to treat these infants at delivery, to reduce their risk of extreme side effects of a very early birth.”